The investments in transport sphere in Yamalo-Nenetsky Autonomous District make 7.6% of the total amount of capital investments; this index is lower than the average for Russia (10.4%). The transport communications between the settlements are carried out mostly by water of by air. The development of transport infrastructure of Autonomous District was closely connected with its economical development. The traditional transport means - reindeer teams - are still often used in many regions of Autonomous District. The river and sea navigation is of great importance for this territory. The rapid development of transport and communication systems started in Autonomous District only in the post-war years. In 1949 a railway line reached Labytnangi. The comfortable passenger liners appeared in the northern rivers, the cargo fleet increased, the new mechanized mooring lines were built. Since 1964 the regular flights of An-24 airplanes began from Labytnangi to Tiumen, Tazovsky, Tarko-Sale and since 1968 - to Moscow.

To meet the requirements of Autonomous District inhabitants in the air communication the aircraft company "Tiumen airlines" was invited to the local air-routs. In 1997 "Yamal" aircraft company was created.

But the air transport in Autonomous District meets serious problems. The amount of conveyance is decreasing because of the high tariffs; it leads to the reduction of air transport employees number.

The railway at present is the only available transport means for the one-third of Autonomous District population.

In the east of Autonomous District the new railway line construction from Korochayevo station is planned and the road to Tazovsky settlement is already being built. The lines are moving through the zone of oil and gas field towards a number of other prospected deposits.

The construction of stabilized earth road from Salekhard to Aksarka settlement, the centre of Pri-Uralski district, is going on. This road will help to relieve the Ob river waterway and to maintain regular transport communication with this district. One more road - from Nadym to Salekhard - is built along the gas pipeline.

The development of transport network will make it possible to reduce the expenditures on the loads delivery to Autonomous District and from it to other regions of the country. The local population should be given a choice between the alternative kinds of transport communication.

In 1995 the Russian Navy - in coordination with Autonomous District authorities - carried out the unique experiment. The atom-powered submarine made a voyage under the ice fields of the Arctic Ocean and brought cargo to the base of "Karsky oil and gas prospecting expedition" in Kharasavei settlement. According to the economists' estimates, the use of atom-powered submarines as the transport means will reduce the cost of deliveries to the Far North regions and will make navigation all-the-year-round.