"Glavsevmorput" shipping company.
"Glavsevmorput" initially emerged from the Kara Sea Expeditions of the 1920s. Soon after the Civil War the development of the Far North started - dozens of expeditions were sent to the polar regions, the industrial basis of the North and of the Far East was founded. At that time the need of transport main, connecting the ports of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk with northern and Far East regions, became urgent. By the early 1930s a large experience in the sphere of high-latitudes exploration was accumulated in the Soviet Union. The special Arctic Department was formed at the USSR Government. The principal task of the newly created Chief Administration of the Arctic Sea Route was to maintain the regular sea communications with the regions lying from White Sea up to Bering Strait.
This organization added a glorious chapter to the history of the Arctic development. Among the most well-known events there are the expeditions of "Cheliuskin" and "Litke", the long drifting of "Sedov", the voyages of patrol ships "Murmanetz", "Academic Shokalsky" and many others.
In the Arctic the sea transport system works for the provision of several industrial zones, where the extraction of oil, gas, non-ferrous and rare-earth metals is carried out. These resources' use is important for the normal functioning of Russian economy.
The shipping companies, working in the Far North regions, have at their disposal the fleet of ice-breaking or reinforced-type ships. Besides, the river fleet also takes an active part in the conveyances on the territories of Republic Yakutia, Khanty-Mansi, Yamalo-Nenetsky, Chukotsky and other Autonomous Districts, as well as in Khabarovsky and Krasnoyarsky Regions and in Komi Republic.
The economic crisis in Russia caused the reduction of the conveyance amount in the North. In 1996 the sea transport conveyed to northern regions only 4 million tons of loads comparing with 15 million tons in 1991. The river transport conveyances reduced to one third of the amount of 1991.
The measures, taken to improve the supplies to the Far North, are inefficient. The financial support usually comes to the northern region only at the end of navigation period, and the loads are to be conveyed in the conditions of advancing ice fields at the risk of ships and their crews lives.
The administration of YaNAD succeeded in solution of this problem. The Governor of Autonomous District, acting on the initiative of his own and without financial support from Moscow, three years ago organized the supplies to the towns and settlements of YaNAD on the basis of mutual reckoning system. At present the agreements on the foodstuffs' and consumer goods' supplies are signed for the period of 1997-98.