In the present time the railway is the only available transport means for the one-third of Autonomous District population.
The history of this transport development in YaNAD is as follows: In the 1940s on the territory of Autonomous District the building of railway line Vorkuta - Salekhard - Igarka started. This line was planned to become a part of a great railway main Moscow - Anadyr. Immediately after the Second World War the government issued the decree on the construction of a large seaport in the Yamal peninsula near Kamennyi Cape, to which the railway branch was to be built. The idea of seaport and railway branch construction was abandoned very soon. But the building of the road Salekhard - Igarka began from its western and eastern ends. By January 1954 over a half of planned 1500 km were built. But the difficulties arose with the construction of bridge over Ob river and the unfinished road was closed. The builders used this part of railway when the development of oil and gas deposits in Autonomous District began.
At present there are two railway stations in YaNAD (one in the western and the other in the central parts of Autonomous District). These stations are not connected with each other. The first one is Labytnangi - the branch of railway line to Vorkuta, which connects the administrative centre of YaNAD Salekhard with the European regions of Russia. The second station is Novy Urengoi, connected by the 650-km line with Surgut and farther on - with Tiumen and the railroad network of Russia. The railway lines Novy Urengoi - Yamburg and Labytnangi - Bovanenkovo (later is still under construction) are used only for technological purposes.
The railway line, connecting Noyabrsk, Novy Urengoi and Yamburg with Tiumen, goes northward to the settlement of oil industry workers Pur-Pe and to the town Gubkinsky.
The railway transport is increasing the total amount of conveyed loads. In the last summer season this amount grew by 15% in comparison with the same period of the previous year. In order to reduce the exploitation cost and to improve the economic efficiency some stations of Autonomous District are closed for cargo operations and put on the day-shift regime.