The air transport plays special and very important part in the life of Autonomous District. The vast and poorly developed territories and sparse population make aircraft the exceptional means of conveying loads, passengers, mail and giving medical assistance to the inhabitants of distant settlements. The first flights took place in 1931-32, and in 1935 the regular airline Tiumen-Salekhard was opened. The well-known polar airman Nikolai Alexandrovich Tzilebeyev was the first to establish the air communication Tiumen-Salekhard, while S.I. Antiushev made the first regular flight.
At present the majority of air-transport communications between Autonomous District and other regions of Russia are carried out by "Tiumen airlines" and "Yamal" companies. The main transport means for the local inhabitants within Autonomous District are helicopters.
The reconstruction of airfields and the building of new ones is going on. Large airports are built in Nadym and Novy Urengoi. The airport complex in Yamburg is able to accept large transport airplanes. In Salekhard a new take-off and landing runway for the various-type aircraft is built.
In order to meet the requirements for air conveyance and to reduce tariffs the administration of Autonomous District created on March 16, 1997, the new aircraft company "Yamal".