Yamalo-Nenetsky Autonomous District is the main gas-extracting region of Russia. The industrial development of gas fields started in the end of the 1970s. At that time Autonomous District gave about 50% of the overall gas extraction of Russia; now its share rose up to 90%, and the total amount of hydrocarbon resources, extracted from YaNAD deposits, reached 6000 thousand million cub.m. of gas and 1000 million tons of oil and condensate. Among the largest gas fields there are Urengoisky, Medvezhye, Yamburgsky, Vygnapurovsky and others.
18 industrial enterprises take part in the extraction of oil, gas and condensate on the territory of Autonomous District. The industrial gas extraction started on YaNAD territory in 1972 in Medvezhye field. The extracted is carried out by joint-stock company "Nadymgasprom". 6 years later the production in Medvezhye reached its projected annual capacity of 70 000 million cub.m. In the course of this field's development about 1500 thousand million cub.m. of gas, or 64% of its geological reserves, were extracted.
"Urengoigasprom" company was the second - according to the chronological order - extracting enterprise, created on the territory of Autonomous District. The industrial extraction in Urengoisky field started in 1978. At present Senoman gas and Neokom gas condensate deposits are exploited in Urengoisky field. The improvement and equipping of deposit is still going on: at present over 1364 gas-extracting wells work here. The total amount of gas, extracted from Senoman deposits, is 3400 thousand million cub.m. - about 50% of all geological reserves. Over 300 000 million cub.m. of gas and 40 million tons of stable condensate were extracted from Neokom deposits.
In 1979 "Surgutgasprom" company started the industrial exploitation of Vygnapursky gas field and two years later reached the projected annual capacity of 20 000 million cub.m. At present the equipping of this deposit is completed. The total amount of extracted gas reached 275 thousand million cub.m., or 66% of initially prospected reserves.
In 1993 the Senoman deposit in Komsomolsky gas field was put into operation and two years later it reached the projected capacity of 26 000 million tons. At present 92 bore-holes with average discharge of 1 million cub.m./day each are working here.
Gubkinsky and - in cooperation with "Purneftegasgeologia" company - West-Tarkosalinsky gas fields will be developed in the nearest future. The prospective annual projected capacity of all "Surgutgasprom" wells is about 100 thousand million cub.m. of gas.
In 1985 "Yamburggasdobycha" company started the development of one of the largest gas fields in Autonomous District - Yamburgsky. The total amount of extracted gas from 726 wells, exploiting the Senoman deposits, reached 1 200 thousand million cub.m.
In 1996 the Valazan deposits of Yamburg field were put into operation. The preparations for Zapolyarny gas-oil-and-condensate field development are going on. In due course the company will provide more than a half of all gas extraction output in Autonomous District. In the nearest future the exploitation of Kharvutinsky gas field will be started (together with "Tiumentransgas" company").
Simultaneously with the development of new gas fields the gas pipeline capacities are created in Autonomous District.
In 1972 "Nadym-Purga" pipeline started conveying gas from Medvezhye field to the Urals. In 1978 "Urengoi-Nadym" pipeline was put into operation. The gas from Vygnapur field joined the main "Urengoi-Tiumen-Cheliabinsk". The gas mains' systems provide the gas supply from the deposits of Autonomous District to the industrial centres of the Urals, European regions of Russia, Altai, Kuzbass, and to the foreign countries.
Apart from the gas extraction the intensive development of oil fields on the territory of Autonomous District is carried out. The leading oil-extracting enterprises are "Noyabrskneftegas" and "Rosneft-Purneftegas" companies - together they make 96% of total oil production. Among the other oil-extracting enterprises in Autonomous District there are "Purneftegasgeologia", "Urengoigasprom", "Geoilbent" etc.
The conveyance of oil from the YaNAD deposits is carried out by two oil pipelines - "Tarasovsky-Kholmogory", which was put into operation in 1982-86, and "Kholmogory-Surgut", working since 1976.
At present joint-stock company "Noyabrskneftegas" is a branch of "Sibneft" Oil Company - one of the largest oil-and-gas-extracting enterprises in Russia, holding control over the development of 145 deposits. The prospected raw-materials basis enables company to maintain the high level of the oil-extraction output. The company has in reserves a number of new deposits, waiting their turn for exploitation. In the future "Sibneft" is going to take part in competitions and auctions in Autonomous District, aiming to acquire licences for the new deposits exploitation and thus to extend its raw materials' basis.
The company's annual output is 20 million tons of oil. The largest among its oil fields are Kholmogorsky, Sutorminsky, Muravlenkovsky and Sugmutsky.
"Rosneft-Purneftegas" joint-stock company started its activities in 1985 with the development of Novo-Pureisky oil field.
At present "Rosneft-Purneftegas" has licences for the exploitation of 13 deposits; 11 of these are being developed. The largest oil fields - Tarasovsky, Barsukovsky and Kharampursky - give over 80% of company's output. Tarasovsky and Barsukovsky were put into operation in 1986 and Kharampursky - in 1990. The present annual output of "Pyrneftegas" company is 8 million tons of oil, or 27.9% of Autonomous District total output. The company has 2229 wells; 1628 of these are working at present.